LNK418 (Power Integrations)
LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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This product is not recommended for new designs.
LNK403-410/413-420
LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC Family
Single-Stage PFC, Primary-Side Constant Current Control
and TRIAC Dimming/Non-Dimming Options
Product Highlights
Dramatically Simplifies Off-line LED Drivers
Single-stage combination of power factor correction and
accurate constant-current (CC) output
Enables very long lifetime designs (no electrolytic capacitors)
Eliminates optocoupler and all secondary current control
circuitry
Eliminates control loop compensation circuitry
Simple primary-side PWM dimming interface
Universal input voltage range
LNK403-410 optimized for flicker-free TRIAC dimming
EcoSmart– Energy Efficient
Single-stage PFC combined with output CC control
Greatly increases efficiency, >90% achievable
Reduces component count
No current sense resistors
Low standby power remote ON/OFF feature
(<50 mW at 230 VAC)
Accurate and Consistent Performance
Compensates for transformer inductance variations
Compensates for line input voltage variation
Frequency jittering greatly reduces EMI filter size and cost
Advanced Protection and Safety Features
Auto-restart for short-circuit protection
Open circuit fault detection mode
Automatic thermal shutdown restart with hysteresis
Meets high voltage creepage requirement between DRAIN and
all other signal pins both on PCB and at package
Green Package
Halogen free and ROHS compliant package
Applications
Off-line LED driver
Description
The LinkSwitch™-PH dramatically simplifies implementation of
LED drivers requiring long lifetime, high efficiency, PF >0.9, and
TRIAC dimming capability (LNK403-410). The single-stage
combined power factor and constant-current controller eliminates
a switching stage and the electrolytic bulk capacitor. The
advanced primary-side control used by the LinkSwitch-PH device
provides accurate constant current control while eliminating the
need for an optocoupler and current sensing circuits.
RV
AC
IN D V LinkSwitch-PH
CONTROL
BP
S R FB
Figure 1. Typical Application Schematic.
PI-6543-082211
Output Power Table1,2
Product 5
LNK403/413E/L
LNK404/414E/L
LNK405/415E/L
LNK406/416E/L
LNK407/417E/L
LNK408/418E/L
LNK409/419E/L
LNK410/420E/L
RV = 2 MW
85-132 VAC
Minimum
Output
Power 3
Maximum
Output
Power 4
2.5 W
4.5 W
2.5 W
5.5 W
3.8 W
7.0 W
4.5 W
8.0 W
5.5 W
10 W
6.8 W
13.5 W
8.0 W
20 W
18 W
31 W
RV = 4 MW
85-308 VAC
Minimum
Output
Power 3
Maximum
Output
Power 4
6.5 W
12 W
6.5 W
15 W
8.5 W
18 W
10 W
22 W
12 W
25 W
16 W
35 W
18 W
50 W
40 W
78 W
Table 1. Output Power Table.
Notes:
1. Continuous power in an open frame with adequate heat sinking at device local
ambient of 70 °C.
2. Power level calculated on typical LED string voltage with efficiency >80%.
3.
4.
5.
MPMaiancxikmimaugumem: oeouSutIpPtpu-u7ttCppo,owewSeeIrPrw-w7itFiht.hCCBBPP==1100m0Fm. F.
LNK4x3EG CBP = 10 mF.
LinkSwitch-PH incorporates a 725 V power FET, a continuous-
mode PWM controller, a high-voltage switched current source for
self biasing, frequency jittering, protection circuitry including
cycle-by-cycle current limit and hysteretic thermal shutdown.
eSIP-7C (E Package)
Figure 2. Package Options.
eSIP-7F (L Package)
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This Product is Covered by Patents and/or Pending Patent Applications.
June 2015


LNK418 (Power Integrations)
LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
BYPASS (BP)
VOLTAGE
MONITOR (V)
FEEDBACK (FB)
REFERENCE (R)
BYPASS
CAPACITOR
SELECT
ILIM MI
1V
STOP
LOGIC
3-VT
UV/OV
LINE
SENSE
VBG
5.9 V
REGULATOR
SOFT-START
TIMER
AUTO-RESTART
COUNTER
FAULT
PRESENT
HYSTERETIC
THERMAL
SHUTDOWN
5.9 V
5.0 V
BYPASS PIN
UNDERVOLTAGE
JITTER
CLOCK
OSCILLATOR
Comparator
-
+ DFCBMOAFXF
OCP
Gate
Driver
SenseFet
LEB
+
IV PFC/CC
CONTROL
IFB
MI
CURRENT LIMIT
COMPARATOR
-
ILIM
VSENSE
FEEDBACK
SENSE
6.4 V
FBOFF
DCMAX
REFERENCE
BLOCK
VBG
IS
DRAIN (D)
PI-5431-102610
SOURCE (S)
Figure 3. Functional Block Diagram.
Pin Functional Description
DRAIN (D) Pin:
This pin is the power FET drain connection. It also provides
internal operating current for both start-up and steady-state
operation.
SOURCE (S) Pin:
This pin is the power FET source connection. It is also the
ground reference for the BYPASS, FEEDBACK, REFERENCE and
VOLTAGE MONITOR pins.
BYPASS (BP) Pin:
This is the connection point for an external bypass capacitor for
the internally generated 5.9 V supply. This pin also provides
output power selection through choice of the BYPASS pin
capacitor value.
FEEDBACK (FB) Pin:
The FEEDBACK pin is used for output voltage feedback. The
current into the FEEDBACK pin is directly proportional to the
output voltage. The FEEDBACK pin also includes circuitry to
protect against open load and overload output conditions.
REFERENCE (R) Pin:
This pin is connected to an external precision resistor and is
used to configure for dimming (LNK403-410) and non-TRIAC
dimming (LNK413-420) modes of operation.
VOLTAGE MONITOR (V) Pin:
This pin interfaces with an external input line peak detector,
consisting of a rectifier, filter capacitor and resistors. The
applied current is used to control stop logic for line under-
voltage (UV), overvoltage (OV), provide feed-forward to control
the output current and the remote ON/OFF function.
E Package (eSIP-7C)
(Top View)
Exposed Pad
(Backside) Internally
Connected to
SOURCE Pin
L Package (eSIP-7F)
Exposed Pad
(backside) Internally
Connected to
SOURCE Pin (see
eSIP-7C Package
Drawing)
7D
5S
4 BP
3 FB
2V
1R
135
Lead Bend Outward
from Drawing
R
FB
24
S
V BP
(Refer to eSIP-7F Package
Outline Drawing)
7
D
PI-5432-082411
Figure 4. Pin Configuration.
2
Rev. G 06/15
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LNK418 (Power Integrations)
LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
Functional Description
A LinkSwitch-PH device monolithically integrates a controller and
high-voltage power FET into one package. The controller
implements both high power factor and a constant current
output in a single stage. The LinkSwitch-PH controller consists
of an oscillator, feedback (sense and logic) circuit, 5.9 V regulator,
hysteretic over-temperature protection, frequency jittering,
cycle-by-cycle current limit, auto-restart, inductance correction,
power factor and constant current control.
FEEDBACK Pin Current Control Characteristics
The figure shown below illustrates the operating boundaries of
the FEEDBACK
and below IFB(AR)
pin
the
cduervreicnet.enAtbeorsveinItFoB(SaKuIPt)os-wreitscthairnt.g
is
disabled
IFB(SKIP)
Skip-Cycle
IFB
CC Control
Region
IFB(DCMAXR)
Soft-Start and
CC Fold-Back
Region
IFB(AR)
Auto-Restart
DC10
Maximum Duty Cycle
Figure 5. FEEDBACK Pin Current Characteristic.
DCMAX
PI-5433-060410
The FEEDBACK pin current is also used to clamp the maximum
duty cycle to limit the available output power for overload and
open-loop conditions. This duty cycle reduction characteristic
also promotes a monotonic output current start-up characteristic
to prevent over-shoot.
REFERENCE Pin
The REFERENCE pin is tied to ground (SOURCE) via an external
resistor. The value selected sets the internal references,
determining the operating mode for dimming (LNK403-410) and
non-dimming (LNK413-420) operation and the line undervoltage
and overvoltage thresholds of the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin. For
non-dimming or PWM dimming applications with LNK413-420,
the external resistor should be a 24.9 kW ±1%, for high-line and
universal input voltage designs, and 49.9 kW ±1% for low-line
input voltage designs. For phase angle AC dimming with
LNK403-410, the external resistor should be a 49.9 kW ±1%.
One percent resistors are recommended as the resistor
tolerance directly affects the output tolerance. Other resistor
values should not be used.
BYPASS Pin Capacitor Power Gain Selection
LinkSwitch-PH devices have the capability to tailor the internal
gain to either full or a reduced output power setting. This allows
selection of a larger device to minimize dissipation for both
thermal and efficiency reasons. The power gain is selected with
the value of the BYPASS pin capacitor. The full power setting is
selected with a 100 mF capacitor and the reduced power setting
(for higher efficiency) is selected with a 10 mF capacitor. The
BYPASS pin capacitor sets both the internal power gain as well
as the over-current protection (OCP) threshold. Unlike the
larger devices, the LNK4x3 power gain is not programmable.
Use a 10 mF capacitor for the LNK4x3.
Switching Frequency
The switching frequency is 66 kHz. To further reduce the EMI
level, the switching frequency is jittered (frequency modulated)
by approximately ±1 kHz.
Soft-Start
The controller includes a soft-start timing feature which inhibits
the auto-restart protection
to distinguish start-up into
afefaatuulrte(sfhoor rtth-ecisrcouftit-)sftraormt paerlaiordge(tSOFT)
output capacitor. At start-up the LinkSwitch-PH clamps the
maximum duty cycle to reduce the output power. The total
soft-start period is tSOFT.
Remote ON/OFF and EcoSmart
The VOLTAGE MONITOR pin has a 1 V threshold comparator
connected at its input. This voltage threshold is used for
remote ON/OFF control. When a signal is received at the
VOLTAGE MONITOR pin to disable the output (VOLTAGE
MONITOR pin tied to ground through an optocoupler photo-
transistor) the LinkSwitch-PH will complete its current switching
cycle before the internal power FET is forced off.
The remote ON/OFF feature can also be used as an eco-mode
or power switch to turn off the LinkSwitch-PH and keep it in a
very low power consumption state for indefinite long periods.
When the LinkSwitch-PH is remotely turned on after entering
this mode, it will initiate a normal start-up sequence with
soft-start the next time the BYPASS pin reaches 5.9 V. In the
worst case, the delay from remote on to start-up can be equal
to the full discharge/charge cycle time of the BYPASS pin. This
reduced consumption remote off mode can eliminate expensive
and unreliable in-line mechanical switches.
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3
Rev. G 06/15


LNK418 (Power Integrations)
LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
DV
CONTROL
BP
S R FB
PI-5435-052510
Figure 6. Remote ON/OFF VOLTAGE MONITOR pin Control
5.9 V Regulator/Shunt Voltage Clamp
The internal 5.9 V regulator charges the bypass capacitor
connected to the BYPASS pin to 5.9 V by drawing a current
from the voltage on the DRAIN pin whenever the power FET is
off. The BYPASS pin is the internal supply voltage node. When
the power FET is on, the device operates from the energy
stored in the bypass capacitor. Extremely low power
consumption of the internal circuitry allows LinkSwitch-PH
to operate continuously from current it takes from the DRAIN
pin. A bypass capacitor value of 10 or 100 mF is sufficient for
both high frequency decoupling and energy storage. In
addition, there is a 6.4 V shunt regulator clamping the BYPASS
pin at 6.4 V when current is provided to the BYPASS pin
through an external resistor. This facilitates powering of
LinkSwitch-PH externally through a bias winding to increase
operating efficiency. It is recommended that the BYPASS pin is
supplied current from the bias winding for normal operation.
Auto-Restart
In the event of an open-loop fault (open FEEDBACK pin resistor
or broken path to feedback winding), output short-circuits or an
overload condition the controller enters into the auto-restart
mode. The controller annunciates both short-circuit and
open-loop conditions once the FEEDBACK pin current falls
below the IFB(AR) threshold after the soft-start period. To
minimize the power dissipation under this fault condition the
shutdown/auto-restart circuit turns the power supply on (same
as the soft-start period) and off at an auto-restart duty cycle of
tfayuplitciasllyreDmCoAvRefdordausrinlogntgheasauthtoe-fraeuslttacrot nodff-ittiiomnep, ethrseisptos.weIfrthe
supply will remain in auto-restart until the full off-time count is
completed. Special consideration must be made to appropriately
size the output capacitor to ensure that after the soft-start
ptherreioshdo(tldSOtFoT)
the FEEDBACK pin current is above
ensure successful power-supply star
tt-huepI.FB(AR)
After the soft-start time period, auto-restart is activated only
when the FEEDBACK pin current falls below IFB(AR).
Over-Current Protection
The current limit circuit senses the current in the power FET.
When this current exceeds the internal threshold (ILIMIT), the power
FET is turned off for the remainder of that cycle. A leading edge
blanking circuit inhibits the current limit comparator for a short
time (tLEB) after the power FET is turned on. This leading edge
blanking time has been set so that current spikes caused by
capacitance and rectifier reverse recovery will not cause
premature termination of the power FET conduction.
Line Under/Overvoltage Protection
This device includes both line under- and overvoltage detection
to limit the minimum start-up and maximum operating voltage
detected through the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin. An external peak
detector consisting of a diode and capacitor are required to
provide input line peak voltage to the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin
tohffrouungtihl thaereinspisuttolri.neAvtopltoawgeerreuapc,hIUeVs+
keeps the LinkSwitch-PH
the undervoltage threshold.
At power
goes out
odforwegn,ulIaUVt-iopnr.events
restart
attempts
after
the
output
The same resistor used for UV also sets line overvoltage (OV)
shutdown threshold which, once exceeded, forces the
LinkSwitch-PH to stop switching (after completion of the current
switching cycle). Once the line voltage returns to normal, the
device resumes normal operation. A small amount of hysteresis
is provided on the OV threshold to prevent noise triggering.
When the power FET is off, the rectified DC high voltage surge
capability is increased to the voltage rating of the power FET
(725 V), due to the absence of the reflected voltage and leakage
spikes on the drain.
Hysteretic Thermal Shutdown
The thermal shutdown circuitry senses the controller die
temperature. The threshold is set at 142 °C typical with a 75 °C
hysteresis. When the die temperature rises above this threshold
(142 °C) the power FET is disabled and remains disabled until
the die temperature falls by 75 °C, at which point the power FET
is re-enabled.
Safe Operating Area (SOA) Protection
The device also features a safe operating area (SOA) protection
mode which disables FET switching for 40 cycles in the event
tsthhweeitpdcheevaoikcne-stwiumnitecdhiesrclesushrsroertnth-tacrniercatOucNiht(SeeOdAs).LthETehDiIsLcIMpoITrnotdtheitrcieotsinohsnoalmdnodadnaedt
the
protects
start-up
during the soft-start period when auto-restart protection is inhibited.
The SOA protection mode remains active in normal operation.
4
Rev. G 06/15
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LNK418 (Power Integrations)
LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
Application Example
14 W TRIAC Dimmable High Power Factor LED Driver
Design Example
The circuit schematic in Figure 7 shows a TRIAC dimmable high
power-factor LED driver based on LNK406EG from the
LinkSwitch-PH family of devices. It was optimized to drive an
LED string at a voltage of 28 V with a constant current of 0.5 A
(±5%) ideal for PAR lamp retro-fit applications. The design
operates over a universal input voltage range of 90 VAC to
265 VAC but provides the specified output current tolerance
over a line voltage range of 90 VAC to 132 VAC (this is configurable
for high-line only applications by simple component value changes).
The key goals of this design were compatibility with standard
leading edge TRIAC AC dimmers, very wide dimming range
(1000:1, 500 mA:0.5 mA), high efficiency (>85%) and high power
factor (>0.9). The design is fully protected from faults such as
no-load, overload and output short-circuit conditions and over
temperature.
Circuit Description
The LinkSwitch-PH device (U1) integrates the power FET,
controller and start-up functions into a single package reducing
the component count versus typical implementations. Configured
as part of an isolated continuous conduction mode flyback
converter, U1 provides high power factor via its internal control
algorithm together with the small input capacitance of the
design. Continuous conduction mode operation results in
reduced primary peak and RMS current. This both reduces
EMI noise, allowing simpler, smaller EMI filtering components and
improves efficiency. Output current regulation is maintained
without the need for secondary-side sensing which eliminates
current sense resistors and improves efficiency.
Input Stage
Fuse F1 provides protection from component failures while RV1
provides a clamp during differential line surges, keeping the
peak drain voltage of U1 below the 725 V rating of the internal
power FET. Bridge rectifier BR1 rectifies the AC line voltage.
EMI filtering is provided by L1-L3, C1, R16 and R17 together with
the safety rated Y class capacitor (C7) that bridges the safety
isolation barrier between primary and secondary. Resistor R16
and R17 act to damp any resonances formed between L1, L2,
C1 and the AC line impedance. A small bulk capacitor (C2) is
required to provide a low impedance source for the primary
switching current. The maximum value of C1 and C2 is limited in
order to maintain a power factor of greater than 0.9.
LinkSwitch-PH Primary
To provide peak line voltage information to U1 the incoming
rectified AC peak charges C3 via D2. This is then fed into the
VOLTAGE MONITOR pin of U1 as a current via R2 and R3. This
sensed current is also used by the device to set the line input
overvoltage and undervoltage protection thresholds. Resistor
R1 provides a discharge path for C3 with a time constant much
longer than that of the rectified AC to prevent generation of line
frequency ripple.
The VOLTAGE MONITOR pin current and the FEEDBACK pin
current are used internally to control the average output LED
current. For TRIAC phase-dimming applications a 49.9 kΩ
resistor (R4) is used on the REFERENCE pin and 4 MΩ (R2+R3)
on the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin to provide a linear relationship
between input voltage and the output current and maximizing
the dimming range. Resistor R4 also sets the internal line input
undervoltage and overvoltage protection thresholds.
F1
L 3.15 A
90 - 265
VAC RV1
275 VAC
N
R16
1 k
L1
1000 µH
L2
1000 µH
R17
1 k
L3
1000 µH
R9
750 k
1%
BR1
2KBP06M
600 V
R10
750 k
1%
R18
510
1W
C1
47 nF
275 VAC
C11
220 nF
630 V
D1
DL4002
R11
2.4 M
Q1
FMMT558
C6
15 nF
50 V
VR2
ZMM5245B-7
15 V
R12
15
1%
Q2
IRFR310
R13
130
1/2 W
R1
240 k
1/2 W
D2
DL4007
VR1
P6KE200A
D3
UF4007
C2
100 nF
630 V
R2
2 M
1%
R3
2 M
1%
C3
1 µF
400 V
D
LinkSwitch-PH
U1
LNK406EG
D4
UF4002
D5
1N4148
R5
V 3 k
CONTROL
BP
S R FB
R4
49.9 k
1%
C4
10 µF
16 V
11 FL1
C8 C10
330 µF 330 µF R15
50 V 50 V 20 k
D8
MBRS4201T3G
1 FL2
3
T1
RM8
2
R8 D6
150 DL4936
R7
10 k
C5
22 µF
50 V
28 V, 500 mA
RTN
R6
162 k
1%
Q3
MMBT3904
VR3
ZMM5259B-7
39 V
R19
1 k
C13
100 nF
50 V
R20
10 k
D7
BAV21WS-7-F
C12
1 µF
50 V
C7
2.2 nF
250 VAC
PI-5997-061510
Figure 7. Schematic of an Isolated, TRIAC Dimmable, High Power Factor, Universal Input, 14 W LED Driver.
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5
Rev. G 06/15


LNK418 (Power Integrations)
LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
Diode D3 and VR1 clamp the drain voltage to a safe level due to
the effects of leakage inductance. Diode D4 is necessary to
prevent reverse current from flowing through U1 for the period
of the rectified AC input voltage that the voltage across C2 falls
to below the reflected output voltage (VOR).
Diode D6, C5, R7 and R8 create the primary bias supply from
an auxiliary winding on the transformer. Capacitor C4 provides
local decoupling for the BYPASS pin of U1 which is the supply
pin for the internal controller. During start-up C4 is charged to
~6 V from an internal high-voltage current source tied to the
device DRAIN pin. This allows the part to start switching at
which point the operating supply current is provided from the
bias supply via R5. Capacitor C4 also selects the output power
mode (10 μF for reduced power was selected to reduce
dissipation in U1 and increase efficiency).
Feedback
The bias winding voltage is proportional to the output voltage
(set by the turns ratio between the bias and secondary
windings). This allows the output voltage to be monitored
without secondary-side feedback components. Resistor R6
converts the bias voltage into a current which is fed into the
FEEDBACK pin of U1. The internal engine within U1 combines
the FEEDBACK pin current, VOLTAGE MONITOR pin current
and drain current information to provide a constant output
current over a 1.5:1 output voltage variation (LED string voltage
variation of ±25%) at a fixed line input voltage.
To limit the output voltage at no-load an output overvoltage
protection circuit is set by D7, C12, R20, VR3, C13, Q3 and R19.
Should the output load be disconnected then the bias voltage
will increase until VR3 conducts, turning on Q3 and reducing
the current into the FEEDBACK pin. When this current drops
below 20 μA the part enters auto-restart and switching is
disabled for 1500 ms allowing time for the output and bias
voltages to fall.
Output Rectification
The transformer secondary winding is rectified by D8 and
filtered by C8 and C10. A Schottky barrier diode was selected
for efficiency and the combined value of C8 and C10 were
selected to give peak-to-peak and LED ripple current equal to
40% of the mean value. For designs where lower ripple is
desirable the output capacitance value can be increased.
A small pre-load is provided by R15 which limits the output
voltage under no-load conditions.
TRIAC Phase Dimming Control Compatibility
The requirement to provide output dimming with low cost,
TRIAC-based, leading edge phase dimmers introduces a
number of trade-offs in the design.
Due to the much lower power consumed by LED based lighting
the current drawn by the overall lamp is below the holding
current of the TRIAC within the dimmer. This can cause
undesirable behaviors such as limited dimming range and/or
flickering as the TRIAC fires inconsistently. The relatively large
impedance the LED lamp presents to the line allows significant
ringing to occur due to the inrush current charging the input
capacitance when the TRIAC turns on. This too can cause
similar undesirable behavior as the ringing may cause the
TRIAC current to fall to zero and turn off.
To overcome these issues two circuits, the Active Damper and
Passive Bleeder, are incorporated. The drawback of these
circuits is increased dissipation and therefore reduced efficiency
of the supply. For non-dimming applications these components
can simply be omitted.
The Active Damper consists of components R9, R10, R11, R12,
D1, Q1, C6, VR2, Q2 in conjunction with R13. This circuit limits
the inrush current that flows to charge C2 when the TRIAC
turns on by placing R13 in series for the first 1 ms of the TRIAC
conduction. After approximately 1 ms, Q2 turns on and shorts
R13. This keeps the power dissipation on R13 low and allows a
larger value during current limiting. Resistor R9, R10, R11 and
C6 provide the 1 ms delay after the TRIAC conducts. Transistor
Q1 discharges C6 when the TRIAC is not conducting and VR2
clamps the gate voltage of Q2 to 15 V.
The Passive Bleeder circuit is comprised of C11 and R18. This
helps to keep the input current above the TRIAC holding current
while the input current corresponding to the effective driver
resistance increases during each AC half-cycle.
6
Rev. G 06/15
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LNK418 (Power Integrations)
LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
7 W High Power Factor Non-Dimmable LED Driver
Design Example with Enhanced Line Regulation
The circuit schematic in Figure 8 shows a high power-factor
LED driver based on a LNK413EG from the LinkSwitch-PH
family of devices. It was optimized to drive an LED string at a
voltage of 21 V with a constant current of 0.33 A, ideal for
PAR20/PAR30 lamp retro-fit applications. The design operates
over the universal input voltage range of 90 VAC to 265 VAC
and is a non-dimming application. A non-dimming application
has tighter output current variation with changes in the line
voltage than a dimming application. It’s key to note that, although
not specified for dimming, no circuit damage will result if the
end user does operate the design with a phase controlled
dimmer.
Circuit Description
Input Stage
Fuse F1 provides protection from component failures while RV1
provides a clamp during differential line surges, keeping the
peak drain voltage of U1 below the 725 V rating of the internal
power FET. Bridge rectifier BR1 rectifies the AC line voltage.
EMI filtering is provided by L1-L3, C2 together with the safety
rated Y class capacitor (C7) that bridges the safety isolation
barrier between primary and secondary. Resistor R2 and R3
act to damp any resonances formed between L1, L2, C2 and
the AC line impedance. A small bulk capacitor (C3) is required
to provide a low impedance source for the primary switching
current. The maximum value of C2 and C3 is limited in order to
maintain a power factor of greater than 0.9.
LinkSwitch-PH Primary
To provide peak line voltage information to U1 the incoming
rectified AC peak charges C8 via D6. This is then fed into the
VOLTAGE MONITOR pin of U1 as a current via R4, R7 and R8.
The VOLTAGE MONITOR pin current and the FEEDBACK pin
current are used internally to control the average output LED
current. The combined value of R4, R7 and R8 (3.909 MW)
and R11, R12 (1.402 MW) connected to the VOLTAGE MONITOR
pin provides excellent line regulation over the entire 90 VAC to
265 VAC input range.
The VOLTAGE MONITOR pin current is also used by the device
to set the line input overvoltage and undervoltage protection
thresholds.
Diode D1 and VR1 clamp the drain voltage to a safe level due to
the effects of leakage inductance. A Zener clamp was selected
for lowest component count and highest efficiency. Diode D5 is
necessary to prevent reverse current from flowing through U1
during the period when the AC input voltage is lower than the
reflected output voltage (VOR). A space efficient RM6 core was
selected for this design. The RM core geometry helps minimizes
audible noise but requires the use of flying leads to meet safety
spacing requirements.
Diode D3, C6, R5, R9 and R18 create the primary bias supply
from an auxiliary winding on the transformer. Resistor R5
provides filtering of leakage inductance generated voltage
spikes to improve tracking of the bias and output voltages. It
also forms a pole with C6 at ~100 Hz. Resistors R9 and R18
act as a small load to ensure that the bias voltage collapses
during output short-circuit when U1 enters auto-restart
operation to protect the supply.
Output overvoltage and load disconnection protection is
provided by D8, C14, R24, VR3, C15, R23 and Q2. Should the
output LED load become disconnected the output voltage will
rise causing an associated rise in the bias winding voltage
across C14. Once this exceeds the voltage rating of VR3, Q2
turns on pulling down the FEEDBACK pin of U1 and initiating
auto-restart operation. Once in auto-restart the low duty cycle
of operation (~3%) together with the small pre-load on the
output prevents the output voltage rising to a high level. Once
the output load is reconnected normal operation resumes.
F1
L 3.15 A
90 - 265
VAC RV1
275 VAC
N
R2
1 k
L1
1000 µH
L2
1000 µH
R3
1 k
L3
1000 µH
BR1
DF06S-E3/45
600 V
C2
22 nF
275 VAC
C3
100 nF
400 V
D6
DL4007
VR1
P6KE200A
C8
1 µF
400 V
R4
2 M
1%
R7
1 M
1%
R8
909 k
1%
R11
1.0 M
1%
R12
402 k
1%
D1
UF4007
D5
ES1D
D
LinkSwitch-PH
U1
LNK413EG
S
D4
1N4148
R10
V 3 k
CONTROL
BP
R FB
R19
24.9 k
1% C12
10 µF
10 V
FL1 FL2
C5 C4
150 µF 150 µF R6
35 V 35 V 20 k
D2
MBRS4201T3G
1 FL3
6
T1
RM6
2
R5 D3
75 DL4936
R18 R9
10 k10 k
C6
22 µF
50 V
21 V, 330 mA
RTN
R15
150 k
Q2
MMBT3904
VR3
ZMM5259B-7
39 V
R23
1 k
C15
100 nF
50 V
R24
10 k
D8
BAV21WS-7-F
C14
1 µF
50 V
C7
2.2 nF
250 VAC
PI-5991-101210
Figure 8. Schematic of an Isolated, Non-Dimmable, High Power Factor, Universal Input, 7 W LED Driver.
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LNK418 (Power Integrations)
LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
Capacitor C12 provides local decoupling for the BYPASS pin of
U1 which is the supply pin for the internal controller. During
start-up C4 is charged to ~6 V from an internal high-voltage
current source tied to the device DRAIN pin. Once the bias
voltage has risen into regulation the operating supply current is
provided via R10. Diode D4 prevents U1 from charging C6
during start-up which would increase the start-up delay time.
Feedback
The bias winding voltage is proportional to the output voltage
(set by the turns ratio between the bias and secondary
windings). This allows the output voltage to be monitored
without secondary-side feedback components. Resistor R15
converts the bias voltage into a current which is fed into the
FEEDBACK pin of U1. The internal engine within U1 combines
the FEEDBACK pin current, VOLTAGE MONITOR pin current
and drain current information to provide a constant output
current over a 2:1 output voltage range.
Output Rectification
The transformer secondary winding is rectified by D2 and
filtered by C4 and C5. A Schottky barrier diode was selected
for efficiency and the combined value of C4 and C5 were
selected to give an acceptable LED ripple current. For designs
where lower ripple is desirable the output capacitance value
can be increased. A small pre-load is provided by R6 which
limits the output voltage under no-load conditions.
Key Application Considerations
Power Table
The data sheet power table (Table 1) represents the minimum
and maximum practical continuous output power based on the
following conditions:
1. Efficiency of 80%
2. Device local ambient of 70 °C
3. Sufficient heat sinking to keep the device temperature
below 100 °C
4. For minimum output power column
Reflected output voltage (VOR) of 120 V
FEEDBACK pin current of 135 μA
BYPASS pin capacitor value of 10 μF
5. For maximum output power column
RFEeEfleDcBteAdCoKuptpinutcvuorrletangteof(V1O6R5) oμfA65
V
BYPASS pin capacitor value of 100 μF
(LNK4x3EG = 10 μF)
Note that input line voltages above 85 VAC do not change the
power delivery capability of LinkSwitch-PH devices.
Device Selection
Select the device size by comparing the required output power
to the values in Table 1. For thermally challenging designs,
e.g., incandescent lamp replacement, where either the ambient
temperature local to the LinkSwitch-PH device is high and/or
there is minimal space for heat sinking use the minimum output
power column. This is selected by using a 10 μF BYPASS pin
capacitor and results in a lower device current limit and
therefore lower conduction losses. For open frame design or
designs where space is available for heat sinking then refer to
the maximum output power column. This is selected by using
a 100 μF BYPASS pin capacitor for all but the LNK4x3 which
has only one power setting. In all cases in order to obtain the
best output current tolerance maintain the device temperature
below 100 °C
Maximum Input Capacitance
To achieve high power factor, the capacitance used in both the
EMI filter and for decoupling the rectified AC (bulk capacitor)
must be limited in value. The maximum value is a function of
the output power of the design and reduces as the output
power reduces. For the majority of designs limit the total
capacitance to less than 200 nF with a bulk capacitor value of
100 nF. Film capacitors are recommended compared to
ceramic types as they minimize audible noise with operating
with leading edge phase dimmers. Start with a value of 10 nF
for the capacitance in the EMI filter and increase in value until
there is sufficient EMI margin.
REFERENCE Pin Resistance Value Selection
The LinkSwitch-PH family contains phase dimming devices,
LNK403-410, and non-dimming devices, LNK413-420. The
non-dimmable devices use a 24.9 kW ±1% REFERENCE pin
resistor in high-line and universal input voltage designs and
49.9 kW ±1% in low-line input voltage designs, for best output
current tolerance (over AC input voltage changes). The dimmable
devices use 49.9 kW ±1% to achieve the widest dimming range.
VOLTAGE MONITOR Pin Resistance Network Selection
For widest AC phase angle dimming range with LNK403-410,
use a 4 MW resistor connected to the line voltage peak detector
circuit. Make sure that the resistor’s voltage rating is sufficient
for the peak line voltage. If necessary use multiple series
connected resistors.
For best line regulation, use a series combination of resistors
that equals 3.909 MW connected to the line voltage peak
detector. In addition, connect a 1 MW in series with a 402 kW
resistor (1.402 MW total) from the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin to
SOURCE pin. Use 1% tolerance resistors for good accuracy.
Line regulation can be further improved by using the PIXls
spreadsheet’s fine tuning section. See the LinkSwitch-PH
Application Note for more information.
Primary Clamp
A primary clamp
aisnndeOceustpsaurtyRtoefllimecittethdeVpoelatakgderaVinORto
source
voltage. A Zener clamp requires the fewest components and
board space and gives the highest efficiency. RCD clamps are
also acceptable however the peak drain voltage should be
carefully verified during start-up and output short-circuit as the
clamping voltage varies with significantly with the peak drain
current.
For the highest efficiency, the clamping voltage should be
selected to be at least 1.5 times the output reflected voltage,
VOR, as this keeps the leakage spike conduction time short.
When using a Zener clamp in a universal input or high-line only
application, a VOR of less than 135 V is recommended to allow
8
Rev. G 06/15
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LNK403-410/413-420
for the absolute tolerances and temperature variations of the
Zener. This will ensure efficient operation of the clamp circuit
and will also keep the maximum drain voltage below the rated
breakdown voltage of the FET. An RCD (or RCDZ) clamp
provides tighter clamp voltage tolerance than a Zener clamp.
The RCD clamp is more cost effective than the Zener clamp but
requires more careful design to ensure that the maximum drain
voltage does not exceed the power FET breakdown voltage.
TFthEheeT,bseaesVVtOOPRRFloiCmf 6iat0sndaVrreteogb1ua0lsa0etidoVnoisnptetyhrpfeoicrBamVl afDoSnrScmrea.otinstgdoefstihgensin,tgeirvninagl
Series Drain Diode
An ultra-fast or Schottky diode in series with the drain is
necessary to prevent reverse current flowing through the
device. The voltage rating must exceed the output reflected
voltage,
average
VpOriRm. Tarhyeccuurrrreennttarnadtinhgasvehoaupldeaekxcreaetidngtweoqutiaml teos
the
the
maximum drain current of the selected LinkSwitch-PH device.
Line Voltage Peak Detector Circuit
LinkSwitch-PH devices use the peak line voltage to regulate the
power delivery to the output. A capacitor value of 1 mF to 4.7 mF
is recommended to minimize line ripple and give the highest
power factor (>0.9), smaller values are acceptable but result in
lower PF and higher line current distortion.
Operation with Phase Controlled Dimmers
Dimmer switches control incandescent lamp brightness by not
conducting (blanking) for a portion of the AC voltage sine wave.
This reduces the RMS voltage applied to the lamp thus reducing
the brightness. This is called natural dimming and the
LinkSwitch-PH LNK403-410 devices when configured for
dimming utilize natural dimming by reducing the LED current as
the RMS line voltage decreases. By this nature, line regulation
performance is purposely decreased to increase the dimming
range and more closely mimic the operation of an incandescent
lamp. Using a 49.9 kW REFERENCE pin resistance selects
natural dimming mode operation.
350
PI-5983-060810 0.35
250
Voltage
Current
0.25
150 0.15
50 0.05
-50 0.5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 -0.05
-150
-250
-0.15
-0.25
-350
350
300
250
Conduction Angle (°)
Voltage
Current
-0.35
PI-5984-060810 0.35
0.3
0.25
200 0.2
150 0.15
100 0.1
50 0.05
00
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Conduction Angle (°)
Figure 9. (a) Ideal Input Voltage and Current Waveforms for a Leading Edge
TRIAC Dimmer at 90° Conduction Angle. (b) Resultant Waveforms
Following Rectification of TRIAC Dimmer Output.
Figure 9(a) shows the line voltage and current at the input of a
leading edge TRIAC dimmer with Figure 9(b) showing the
resultant rectified bus voltage. In this example, the TRIAC
conducts at 90 degrees.
Leading Edge Phase Controlled Dimmers
The requirement to provide flicker-free output dimming with low
cost, TRIAC-based, leading edge phase dimmers introduces a
number of trade-offs in the design.
Due to the much lower power consumed by LED based lighting
the current drawn by the overall lamp is below the holding
current of the TRIAC within the dimmer. This causes undesirable
behaviors such as limited dimming range and/or flickering. The
relatively large impedance the LED lamp presents to the line
allows significant ringing to occur due to the inrush current
charging the input capacitance when the TRIAC turns on. This
too can cause similar undesirable behavior as the ringing may
cause the TRIAC current to fall to zero and turn off.
To overcome these issues two circuits, the Active Damper and
Passive Bleeder, are incorporated. The drawback of these
circuits is increased dissipation and therefore reduced efficiency
of the supply so for non-dimming applications these
components can simply be omitted.
Figure 10 shows undesired rectified bus voltage and current
with the TRIAC turning off prematurely and restarting.
If the TRIAC is turning off before the end of the half-cycle
erratically or alternate half AC cycles have different conduction
angles then flicker will be observed in the LED light due to
variations in the output current. This can be solved by including
a bleeder and damper circuit.
Dimmers will behave differently based on manufacturer and
power rating, for example a 300 W dimmer requires less
dampening and requires less power loss in the bleeder than a
600 W or 1000 W dimmer due to different drive circuits and
TRIAC holding current specifications. Line voltage also has a
significant impact as at high-line for a given output power the
input current and therefore TRIAC current is lower but the peak
inrush current when the input capacitance charges is higher
creating more ringing. Finally multiple lamps in parallel driven
from the same dimmer can introduce more ringing due to the
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LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
350
PI-5985-102810 0.35
300
Voltage
Current
0.3
250 0.25
200 0.2
150 0.15
100 0.1
50 0.05
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Conduction Angle (°)
Figure 10. Example of Phase Angle Dimmer Showing Erratic Firing.
0
400
350
PI-5986-060810 0.35
250
Voltage
Current
0.25
150 0.15
50
-50 0
0.05
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 -0.05
-150
-250
-0.15
-0.25
-350
-0.35
Conduction Angle (°)
Figure 11. Ideal Dimmer Output Voltage and Current Waveforms for a Trailing Edge
Dimmer at 90° Conduction Angle.
increased capacitance of parallel units. Therefore when testing
dimmer operation verify on a number of models, different line
voltages and with both a single driver and multiple drivers in parallel.
Start by adding a bleeder circuit. Add a 0.44 mF capacitor and
510 W 1 W resistor (components in series) across the rectified
bus (C11 and R18 in Figure 7). If this results in satisfactory
operation reduce the capacitor value to the smallest that results
in acceptable performance to reduce losses and increase efficiency.
If the bleeder circuit does not maintain conduction in the TRIAC,
then add an active damper as shown in Figure 7. This consists
of components R9, R10, R11, R12, D1, Q1, C6, VR2, Q2 in
conjunction with R13. This circuit limits the inrush current that
flows to charge C2 when the TRIAC turns on by placing R13 in
series for the first 1 ms of the TRIAC conduction. After
approximately 1 ms, Q2 turns on and shorts R13. This keeps
the power dissipation on R13 low and allows a larger value to
be used during current limiting. Increasing the delay before Q2
turns on by increasing the values of resistors R9 and R10 will
improve dimmer compatibility but cause more power to be
dissipated across R13. Monitor the AC line current and voltage
at the input of the power supply as you make the adjustments.
Increase the delay until the TRIAC operates properly but keep
the delay as short as possible for efficiency.
As a general rule the greater the power dissipated in the
bleeder and damper circuits, the more dimmer types will work
with the driver.
Trailing Edge Phase Controlled Dimmers
Figure 11 shows the line voltage and current at the input of the
power supply with a trailing edge dimmer. In this example, the
dimmer conducts at 90 degrees. Many of these dimmers use
back-to-back connected power FETs rather than a TRIAC to
control the load. This eliminates the holding current issue of
TRIACs and since the conduction begins at the zero crossing, high
current surges and line ringing are minimized. Typically these
types of dimmers do not require damping and bleeder circuits.
Audible Noise Considerations for Use with
Leading Edge Dimmers
Noise created when dimming is typically created by the input
capacitors, EMI filter inductors and the transformer. The input
capacitors and inductors experience high di/dt and dv/dt every
AC half-cycle as the TRIAC fires and an inrush current flows to
charge the input capacitance. Noise can be minimized by
selecting film vs ceramic capacitors, minimizing the capacitor
value and selecting inductors that are physically short and wide.
The transformer may also create noise which can be minimized
by avoiding cores with long narrow legs (high mechanical
resonant frequency). For example, RM cores produce less
audible noise than EE cores for the same flux density. Reducing
the core flux density will also reduce the noise. Reducing the
maximum flux density (BM) to 1500 Gauss usually eliminates
any audible noise but must be balanced with the increased core
size needed for a given output power.
Thermal and Lifetime Considerations
Lighting applications present thermal challenges to the driver.
In many cases the LED load dissipation determines the working
ambient temperature experienced by the drive so thermal
evaluation should be performed with the driver inside the final
enclosure. Temperature has a direct impact on driver and LED
lifetime. For every 10 °C rise in temperature, component life is
reduced by a factor of 2. Therefore it is important to properly
heat sink and verify the operating temperatures of all devices.
10
Rev. G 06/15
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LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
Layout Considerations
Primary-Side Connections
Use a single point (Kelvin) connection at the negative terminal of
the input filter capacitor for the SOURCE pin and bias returns.
This improves surge capabilities by returning surge currents
from the bias winding directly to the input filter capacitor. The
BYPASS pin capacitor should be located as close to the
BYPASS pin and connected as close to the SOURCE pin as
possible. The SOURCE pin trace should not be shared with the
main power FET switching currents. All FEEDBACK pin
components that connect to the SOURCE pin should follow the
same rules as the BYPASS pin capacitor. It is critical that the
main power FET switching currents return to the bulk capacitor
with the shortest path as possible. Long high current paths
create excessive conducted and radiated noise.
Secondary-Side Connections
The output rectifier and output filter capacitor should be as
close as possible. The transformer’s output return pin should
have a short trace to the return side of the output filter capacitor.
Input EMI Filter
R2
F1
L RV1
N
L1 C2
L2
Bulk Capacitor
R14
L3
C9
Clamp
FL1
LNK403EG
6
1
VR1
C3
C8
D1
U1
2
T1
Transformer
5
4
3
C7
C12
R3
R16
Copper Area for
Heat Sinking
Figure 12. RD-193 7 W Layout Example, Top Layer.
VR3
R24
C14
C5
D8R10
C6
V
BYPASS Pin
Capacitor
Output
C4 Filter
Capacitors
V
PI-5987-060110
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LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
R13 D6
R12
D7
S
S
BR1
D1 R17
R20 C13
VR2
R4
D1
D5
R5
D3
R7
Bridge Rectifier
R9
F1
B3 R18
D2
Output
Rectifier
R6
Active Damper
MOSFET
Figure 13. RD-193 7 W Layout Example, Bottom Layer.
Quick Design Checklist
Maximum Drain Voltage
Verify that
operating
cthoendpiteioanksViDnScdluodeinsgnosttaerxt cuepeadn7d2f5auVltucnodnedritaioll ns.
Maximum Drain Current
Measure the peak drain current under all operation conditions
including start up and fault conditions. Look for signs of
transformer saturation (usually occurs at highest operating
ambient temperatures). Verify that the peak current is less that
stated for the Absolute Maximum Rating in the data sheet.
Thermal Check
At maximum output power, both minimum and maximum line
voltage and ambient temperature; verify that temperature
specifications are not exceeded for the LinkSwitch-PH,
transformer, output diodes, output capacitors and drain clamp
components.
PI-5988-060110
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LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
Absolute Maximum Ratings(1,4)
DRAIN Pin Peak Current(5): LNK403, LNK413....................1.37 A Operating Junction Temperature(2)..........................-40 to 150 °C
LNK404, LNK414....................2.08 A
LNK405, LNK415....................2.72 A Notes:
LNK406, LNK416................... 4.08 A
LNK407, LNK417................... 5.44 A
1.
2.
All voltages referenced to SOURCE,
Normally limited by internal circuitry.
TA
=
25
°C.
LNK408, LNK418................... 6.88 A 3. 1/16 in. from case for 5 seconds.
LNK409, LNK419.................... 7.73 A 4. Absolute Maximum Ratings specified may be applied, one
LNK410, LNK420................... 9.00 A
at a time without causing permanent damage to the
DRAIN Pin Voltage ………………………................. -0.3 to 725 V
product. Exposure to Absolute Maximum Ratings for
BYPASS Pin Voltage ................................................ -0.3 to 9 V
extended periods of time may affect product reliability.
BYPASS Pin Current ..................................................... 100 mA 5. Peak DRAIN current is allowed while the DRAIN voltage is
VOLTAGE MONITOR Pin Voltage ............................. -0.3 to 9 V(6)
simultaneously less than 400 V. See also Figure 17.
FEEDBACK Pin Voltage ……..................................... -0.3 to 9 V 6. During start-up (the period before the BYPASS pin begins
REFERENCE Pin Voltage .......................................... -0.3 to 9 V powering the IC) the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin voltage can
Lead Temperature(3) .................................................................260 °C safely rise to 15 V without damage.
Storage Temperature ........................................... -65 to 150 °C
Thermal Resistance
Thermal Resistance: eSIP Package:
((qqJJAC)).......................................................................................................1..025
°C/W(1)
°C/W(2)
Notes:
1. Free Standing with no heat sink.
2. Measured at back surface tab.
Parameter
Symbol
Control Functions
Switching Frequency
Frequency Jitter
Modulation Rate
fOSC
fM
BYPASS Pin
Charge Current
ICH1
ICH2
Charging Current
Temperature Drift
BYPASS Pin Voltage
BYPASS Pin Voltage
Hysteresis
BYPASS Pin
Shunt Voltage
Soft-Start Time
VBP
VBP(H)
VBP(SHUNT)
tSOFT
Conditions
SOUR(UCnEles=s0OVt;heTrJw=is-e20Sp°Cectiofie1d2) 5 °C
TJ = 25 °C
Average
Peak-Peak Jitter
STeJe=N2o5te°CB
LNK403, LNK413
VBP = 0 V,
TJ = 25 °C
LNK404, LNK414
LNK405-410,
LNK415-420
LNK403, LNK413
TVJB=P
=5
25
V,
°C
LNK404, LNK414
LNK405-410,
LNK415-420
See Note A
0 °C < TJ < 100 °C
0 °C < TJ < 100 °C
0
°CIB<P
= 2 mA
TJ < 100
°C
VTBJP==255.9°CV
Min
62
-5.0
-9.6
-17
-1.6
-4.2
-9
5.7
6.0
40
Typ
66
9
1
-4.2
-8.0
-12
-1.2
-3.5
-6.8
0.5
5.9
0.85
6.4
Max
Units
70 kHz
kHz
-3.4
-6.4
-8.8
-0.6 mA
-2.8
-4.6
%/°C
6.1 V
V
6.7 V
ms
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LNK403-410/413-420
Parameter
Symbol
Control Functions (cont.)
Drain Supply Current
VOLTAGE MONITOR Pin
Line Brown-In
Threshold Current
Line Brown-Out
Threshold Current
Line Brown-In/Out
Hysteresis
ICD2
ICD1
IUV+
IUV-
IUV(H)
Line Overvoltage
Threshold
VOLTAGE MONITOR Pin
Voltage
VOLTAGE MONITOR Pin
Short-Circuit Current
Remote ON/OFF
Threshold
FEEDBACK Pin
FEEDBACK Pin Current
at Onset of Maximum
Duty Cycle
FEEDBACK Pin Current
Skip Cycle Threshold
Maximum Duty Cycle
FEEDBACK Pin Voltage
FEEDBACK Pin
Short-Circuit Current
Duty Cycle Reduction
Auto-Restart
Auto-Restart ON-Time
Auto-Restart
Duty Cycle
IOV
VV
IV(SC)
VV(REM)
IFB(DCMAXR)
IFB(SKIP)
DCMAX
VFB
IFB(SC)
DC10
DC40
DC60
tAR
DCAR
Conditions
SOUR(UCnEles=s0OVt;heTrJw=is-e20Sp°Cectiofie1d2) 5 °C
0 °C < TJ < 100 °C
FET Not Switching
F0ET°CSw< iTtcJh<in1g0a0t
°C
fOSC
TJ = 25 °C
RR = 24.9 kW
RR = 49.9 kW
TJ = 25 °C
RR = 24.9 kW
RR = 49.9 kW
TJ = 25 °C
RR = 24.9 kW
RR = 49.9 kW
RRTRR J===242495..99°CkkWW
Threshold
Hysteresis
0
°C <
IUV-
<TJIV<<1I0O0V
°C
TVJ V==255
V
°C
TJ = 25 °C
0 °C < TJ < 100 °C
0 °C < TJ < 100 °C
I < I < IFB(DCMAXR) FB FB(SKIP)
0 °C < TJ < 100 °C
IFB = 150 mA
0 °C < TJ < 100 °C
TVJF=B
=5
25
V
°C
IFB = IFB(AR), TJ = 25 °C, See Note B
IFB = 40 mA, TJ = 25 °C
IFB = 60 mA, TJ = 25 °C
TJ = 25 °C
VBP = 5.9 V
TJ = 25 °C
Min
0.5
0.9
21.0
22.8
1
5
107
2.75
170
0.5
220
90
2.08
320
10
40
Typ
0.85
1.5
22.5
24.5
18.5
15.0
4
9.4
112
4
3.0
190
2.40
400
20
36
3
Max
Units
1.2
mA
2.25
24.0
26.2 mA
mA
mA
117
mA
3.25 V
210 mA
V
85 mA
mA
99.9 %
2.62 V
480 mA
%
ms
%
14
Rev. G 06/15
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LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
Parameter
Symbol
Conditions
SOUR(UCnEles=s0OVt;heTrJw=is-e20Sp°Cectiofie1d2) 5 °C
Auto-Restart (cont.)
SOA Minimum Switch
ON-Time
tON(SOA)
FEEDBACK Pin
Current During
Auto-Restart
IFB(AR)
REFERENCE Pin
REFERENCE Pin
Voltage
VR
REFERENCE Pin
Current
IR
Current Limit/Circuit Protection
Full Power
Current Limit
(CBP = 100 mF)
ILIMIT(F)
TJ = 25 °C
Reduced Power
Current Limit
(CBP = 10 mF)
ILIMIT(R)
TJ = 25 °C
Minimum ON-Time
Pulse
Leading Edge
Blanking Time
Current Limit Delay
Thermal Shutdown
Temperature
Thermal Shutdown
Hysteresis
BYPASS Pin Power-Up
Reset Threshold
Voltage
tLEB + tIL(D)
tLEB
tIL(D)
VBP(RESET)
TJ = 25 °C
See Note B
0 °C < TJ < 100 °C
RR = 24.9 kW
0 °C < TJ < 100 °C
di/dt = 174 mA/ms
di/dt = 174 mA/ms
di/dt = 225 mA/ms
di/dt = 320 mA/ms
di/dt = 350 mA/ms
di/dt = 426 mA/ms
di/dt = 1060 mA/ms
di/dt = 133 mA/ms
di/dt = 195 mA/ms
di/dt = 192 mA/ms
di/dt = 240 mA/ms
di/dt = 335 mA/ms
di/dt = 380 mA/ms
di/dt = 466 mA/ms
di/dt = 1060 mA/ms
LNK404, LNK414
LNK405, LNK415
LNK406, LNK416
LNK407, LNK417
LNK408, LNK418
LNK409, LNK419
LNK410, LNK420
LNK403, LNK413
LNK404, LNK414
LNK405, LNK415
LNK406, LNK416
LNK407, LNK417
LNK408, LNK418
LNK409, LNK419
LNK410, LNK420
TJ = 25 °C
STeJe=N2o5te°CB
STeJe=N2o5te°CB
0 °C < TJ < 100 °C
Min
1.215
48.45
1.02
1.24
1.50
1.77
2.39
3.26
4.90
0.75
0.81
1.00
1.19
1.42
1.73
2.35
4.90
300
150
135
2.25
Typ
1.245
49.70
500
150
142
75
3.5
Max
1.75
17.5
1.275
50.95
1.18
1.44
1.74
2.06
2.77
3.79
5.70
0.85
0.94
1.16
1.38
1.66
2.01
2.73
5.70
700
500
150
4.25
Units
ms
mA
V
mA
A
A
ns
ns
ns
°C
°C
V
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Rev. G 06/15


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LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
Parameter
Conditions
Symbol SOUR(UCnEles=s0OVt;heTrJw=is-e20Sp°Cectiofie1d2) 5 °C
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Output
ON-State Resistance
OFF-State Drain
Leakage Current
Breakdown Voltage
Minimum Drain
Supply Voltage
RDS(ON)
IDSS
BVDSS
LNK403, LNK413
ID = 100 mA
TJ = 25 °C
TJ = 100 °C
LNK404, LNK414
ID = 100 mA
TJ = 25 °C
TJ = 100 °C
LNK405, LNK415
ID = 150 mA
TJ = 25 °C
TJ = 100 °C
LNK406, LNK416
ID = 150 mA
TJ = 25 °C
TJ = 100 °C
LNK407, LNK417
ID = 200 mA
TJ = 25 °C
TJ = 100 °C
LNK408, LNK418
ID = 250 mA
TJ = 25 °C
TJ = 100 °C
LNK409, LNK419
ID = 350 mA
TJ = 25 °C
TJ = 100 °C
LNK410, LNK420
ID = 550 mA
TJ = 25 °C
TJ = 100 °C
VTVJDBSP===150660.40°VCV
VTBJP==265.4°CV
TJ < 100 °C
9.00
13.50
5.40
8.35
4.10
6.30
2.80
4.10
2.00
3.10
1.60
2.40
1.40
2.10
1.05
1.6
10.35
15.5
6.25
9.7
4.7
7.3
3.2
4.75
2.3
3.6
1.85
2.8
1.6
2.45
1.2
1.85
50
725
36
W
mA
V
V
Rise Time
Fall Time
tR Measured in a Typical Flyback
tF
100 ns
50 ns
NOTES:
A. For specifications with negative values, a negative temperature coefficient corresponds to an increase in magnitude with increas-
ing temperature and a positive temperature coefficient corresponds to a decrease in magnitude with increasing temperature.
B. Guaranteed by characterization. Not tested in production.
16
Rev. G 06/15
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Typical Performance Characteristics
10000
1000
Scaling Factors:
LNK403, LNK413 0.18
LNK404, LNK414 0.28
LNK405, LNK415 0.38
LNK406, LNK416 0.56
LNK407, LNK417 0.75
LNK408, LNK418 1.00
LNK409, LNK419 1.16
LNK410, LNK420 1.55
100
0
0 100 200 300 400 500
DRAIN Pin Voltage (V)
Figure 14. Drain Capacitance vs. Drain Pin Voltage.
600
5
4
3 Scaling Factors:
LNK403, LNK413 0.18
LNK404, LNK414 0.28
2
LNK405, LNK415 0.38
LNK406, LNK416 0.56
LNK407, LNK417 0.75
LNK408, LNK418 1.00
1 LNK409, LNK419 1.16
LNK410, LNK420 1.55
0
LNK408
LNK408
TCASE
TCASE
=
=
25 °C
100 °C
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
DRAIN Voltage (V)
Figure 16. Drain Current vs. Drain Voltage.
LNK403-410/413-420
300
Scaling Factors:
LNK403, LNK413 0.18
LNK404, LNK414 0.28
LNK405, LNK415 0.38
LNK406, LNK416 0.56
200 LNK407, LNK417 0.75
LNK408, LNK418 1.00
LNK409, LNK419 1.16
LNK410, LNK420 1.55
100
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
DRAIN Voltage (V)
Figure 15. Power vs. Drain Voltage.
700
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
DRAIN Voltage (V)
Figure 17. Maximum Allowable Drain Current vs. Drain Voltage.
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Rev. G 06/15


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LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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LNK403-410/413-420
eSIP-7C (E Package)
A
B
2
0.403 (10.24)
0.397 (10.08)
2
0.325 (8.25)
0.320 (8.13)
Detail A
Pin #1
I.D.
0.140 (3.56)
0.120 (3.05)
0.050 (1.27)
FRONT VIEW
0.070 (1.78) Ref.
3
0.016
0.011
(0.41)
(0.28)
0.020 M 0.51 M C
C
0.081 (2.06)
0.077 (1.96)
0.264 (6.70)
Ref.
0.290 (7.37)
Ref.
0.519 (13.18)
Ref.
0.198 (5.04) Ref.
0.016 (0.41)
Ref.
0.047 (1.19)
0.118 (3.00)
SIDE VIEW
0.207 (5.26)
0.187 (4.75)
0.100 (2.54)
34
0.033
0.028
(0.84)
(0.71)
0.010 M 0.25 M C A B
BACK VIEW
10° Ref.
All Around
0.021 (0.53) 0.060 (1.52)
0.019 (0.48)
Ref.
0.378 (9.60)
Ref.
0.048 (1.22)
0.046 (1.17)
0.019 (0.48) Ref.
END VIEW
Notes:
1. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ASME Y14.5M-1994.
2. Dimensions noted are determined at the outermost
extremes of the plastic body exclusive of mold flash,
tie bar burrs, gate burrs, and interlead flash, but including
any mismatch between the top and bottom of the plastic
body. Maximum mold protrusion is 0.007 [0.18] per side.
3. Dimensions noted are inclusive of plating thickness.
4. Does not include inter-lead flash or protrusions.
5. Controlling dimensions in inches (mm).
0.100 (2.54)
0.020 (0.50)
PIN 1
0.059 (1.50)
0.050 (1.27)
0.050 (1.27)
0.155 (3.93)
0.023 (0.58)
0.027 (0.70)
DETAIL A
PIN 7
0.059 (1.50)
0.100 (2.54) 0.100 (2.54)
MOUNTING HOLE PATTERN
(not to scale)
PI-4917-061510
18
Rev. G 06/15
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eSIP-7F (L Package)
LNK403-410/413-420
A
B
2
0.403 (10.24)
0.397 (10.08)
0.081 (2.06)
0.077 (1.96)
0.325 (8.25)
2 0.320 (8.13)
Pin 1 I.D.
1
Detail A
3
0.016
0.011
(0.41)
(0.28)
0.020 M 0.51 M C
7
0.050 (1.27)
0.070 (1.78) Ref.
C
0.290 (7.37)
Ref. 0.490 (12.45) Ref.
0.084 (2.14)
0.047 (1.19) Ref.
0.129 (3.28)
0.122 (3.08)
0.173 (4.40)
0.163 (4.15) 7
0.100 (2.54)
BOTTOM VIEW
Exposed pad hidden
SIDE VIEW
0.264 (6.70) Ref.
0.198 (5.04) Ref.
1
0.089 (2.26)
0.079 (2.01)
34
0.033
0.028
(0.84)
(0.71)
0.010 M 0.25 M C A B
TOP VIEW
Exposed pad up
0.060 (1.52) Ref. 1
7 0.021 (0.53)
0.019 (0.48)
0.019 (0.48) Ref.
0.378 (9.60)
Ref.
END VIEW
0.048 (1.22)
0.046 (1.17)
0.020 (0.50)
0.023 (0.58)
0.027 (0.70)
DETAIL A (Not drawn to scale)
Notes:
1. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ASME
Y14.5M-1994.
2. Dimensions noted are determined at the
outermost extremes of the plastic body
exclusive of mold flash, tie bar burrs, gate
burrs, and interlead flash, but including
any mismatch between the top and bottom
of the plastic body. Maximum mold
protrusion is 0.007 [0.18] per side.
3. Dimensions noted are inclusive of plating
thickness.
4. Does not include inter-lead flash or
protrusions.
5. Controlling dimensions in inches (mm).
Part Ordering Information
LNK 409 E G
• LinkSwitch Product Family
• PH Series Number
• Package Identifier
E eSIP-7C
L eSIP-7F
• Package Material
G GREEN: Halogen Free and RoHS Compliant
Revision
A
B
C
D
E
E
F
G
Notes
Initial Release.
Updated Power Table.
Added Non-Dimming parts and related text.
Added L Package.
Added new LNK410 and LNK420 parts.
Updated Output Power Table values for LNK410/420. Updated Parameter Table values for LNK410/420.
Added Note 6 to Absolute Maximum Ratings section.
Updated with new Brand Style Logo.
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PI-5204-061510
Date
06/09/10
08/06/10
11/10
08/11
12/11
05/12
06/21/13
06/15
19
Rev. G 06/15


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LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC

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For the latest updates, visit our website: www.power.com
Power Integrations reserves the right to make changes to its products at any time to improve reliability or manufacturability. Power
Integrations does not assume any liability arising from the use of any device or circuit described herein. POWER INTEGRATIONS MAKES
NO WARRANTY HEREIN AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.
Patent Information
The products and applications illustrated herein (including transformer construction and circuits external to the products) may be covered
by one or more U.S. and foreign patents, or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign patent applications assigned to Power Integrations.
A complete list of Power Integrations patents may be found at www.power.com. Power Integrations grants its customers a license under
certain patent rights as set forth at http://www.power.com/ip.htm.
Life Support Policy
POWER INTEGRATIONS PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR
SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF POWER INTEGRATIONS. As used herein:
1. A Life support device or system is one which, (i) is intended for surgical implant into the body, or (ii) supports or sustains life, and (iii)
whose failure to perform, when properly used in accordance with instructions for use, can be reasonably expected to result in significant
injury or death to the user.
2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause
the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness.
The PI logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, LYTSwitch, InnoSwitch, DPA-Switch, PeakSwitch, CAPZero, SENZero, LinkZero,
HiperPFS, HiperTFS, HiperLCS, Qspeed, EcoSmart, Clampless, E-Shield, Filterfuse, FluxLink, StakFET, PI Expert and PI FACTS are
trademarks of Power Integrations, Inc. Other trademarks are property of their respective companies. ©2014, Power Integrations, Inc.
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