MXC62321E (MEMSIC)
Dual Axis Accelerometer

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Low Power, Low Profile
±1.5 g Dual Axis Accelerometer with
I2C Interface
MXC6232xE/F
FEATURES
RoHS compliant
I2C Slave, FAST (400 KHz.) mode interface
1.8V compatible I/O
Embedded Power up/down and self-test function
On-chip temperature sensor
Eight, customer defined 7-bit addresses
2.7 V to 3.6 V single supply continuous operation
Monolithic CMOS IC
Low power consumption: typically <2 mA @ 3.0 V
Resolution better than 1 mg
On chip mixed signal processing
>50,000 g shock survival rating
Low profile LCC package: 5mm X 5mm X 1.55mm
APPLICATIONS
Information Appliances – Cell Phones, PDA’s, Computer
Peripherals, Mouse, Smart Pens
Consumer – LCD Projectors, Pedometers, Blood Pressure
Monitor, Digital Cameras
Gaming – Joystick/RF Interface/Menu Selection/Tilt
Sensing
GPS Electronic Compass Tilt Correction, Dead
Reckoning Assist
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The MXC6232xE/F is low cost, dual axis accelerometers
fabricated on a standard, submicron CMOS process. It is a
complete sensing system with on-chip mixed signal
processing and integrated I2C bus, allowing the device to
be connected directly to a microprocessor eliminating the
need for A/D converters or timing resources. The
MXC6232xE/F measures acceleration with a full-scale
range of ±1.5 g and a sensitivity of 512counts/g (E) or
128counts/g (F) @3.0 V at 25°C. It can measure both
dynamic acceleration (e.g. vibration) and static
acceleration (e.g. gravity). The MXC6232xE/F design is
based on heat convection and requires no solid proof mass.
TEMP
VDD
TP
Internal
Oscillator
VREF
CLK CLK
PD
Heater
Control
Coarse Fine Gain
Gain Adj. Adj.
Temperature
Sensor
TEMP
X aixs
Temp
Comp.
A/D
CLK CLK TEMP CLK
Coarse Fine Gain
Gain Adj. Adj.
IIC Convertor
Y aixs
Acceleration
Sensor
Temp
Comp.
A/D
CLK CLKTEMP CLK
GND
CLK
No
Connection
No
Connection
SCL
SDA
MXC6232xE/F FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
The MXC6232xE/F is packaged in a hermetically sealed,
low profile LCC surface mount package (5 mm x 5 mm x
1.55 mm) and is available in operating temperature ranges
of -40°C to +105°C.
This design eliminates the stiction problems associated
with legacy technologies and provides shock survival
greater than 50,000g’s. Memsic’s solid state design leads
to significantly lower failure rates in customer applications
and lower loss due to handling during manufacturing and
assembly processes
The MXC6232xE/F provides I2C digital output with 400
KHz, fast mode operation.
The maximum noise floor is 1mg/ Hz allowing signals
below 1mg to be resolved at 1 Hz bandwidth
Information furnished by MEMSIC is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
responsibility is assumed by MEMSIC for its use, or for any infringements of patents or
other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No license is granted by
implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of MEMSIC.
©MEMSIC, Inc.
One Technology Drive Suite 325,Andover MA01810,USA
Tel: +1 978 738 0900
Fax: +1 978 738 0196
www.memsic.com
MEMSIC MXC6232xE/F Rev.A
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MXC62321E (MEMSIC)
Dual Axis Accelerometer

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ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Measurements @ 25°C, Acceleration = 0 g unless otherwise noted; VDD = 3.0V unless
otherwise specified)
Parameter
Conditions
Measurement Range1
Each Axis
Nonlinearity
Alignment Error2
Transverse Sensitivity3
Best fit straight line
Sensitivity
MXC6232xE
MXC6232xF
Sensitivity Change Over Temperature from 25°C at -40°C
from 25°C at +105°C
Zero g Offset Bias Level
MXC6232xE
MXC6232xF
Zero g Offset TC
from 25°C
Tout MXC6232xE
MXC6232xF
Tout Sensitivity
MXC6232xE
MXC6232xF
Noise Density, RMS
Resolution
@ 1Hz. BW
Frequency Response
Self-test
Output Drive Capability
Turn-On Time4
Operating Voltage Range
Supply Current
@ -3dB
@ 2.7 V – 3.6 V
Power Down Current
Operating Temperature Range
NOTES:
1 Guaranteed by measurement of initial offset and sensitivity
2 Alignment error is specified as the angle between the true and indicated axis
of sensitivity
3 Cross axis sensitivity is the algebraic sum of the alignment and the inherent
sensitivity errors
4 Output settled to within ± 17mg
Min
±1.5
486
118
-60
1996
492
3195
0.196
0.753
15
2.7
-40
Typ
0.5
±1.0
±2.0
512
128
2048
512
0.4
3375
840
0.217
0.833
0.5
0.5
17
1.0
75
3.0
1.8
Max
1.0
538
138
155
Units
g
% of FS
degrees
%
counts/g
counts/g
%
2100
532
3555
0.244
0.936
1.0
19
100
100
3.6
2.5
1.0
+105
counts
counts
mg/°C
counts
counts
°C/count
°C/count
mg/ Hz
mg
Hz
G
µA
mS
V
mA
µA
°C
MEMSIC MXC6232xE/F Rev.A
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MXC62321E (MEMSIC)
Dual Axis Accelerometer

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I2C INTERFACE I/O CHARACTERISTICS
Parameter
Symbol
Logic Input Low Level
Logic Input High Level
Hysteresis of Schmitt input
Logic Output Low Level
Input Leakage Current
SCL Clock Frequency
START Hold Time
START Setup Time
LOW period of SCL
HIGH period of SCL
Data Hold Time
Data Setup Time
Rise Time
Fall Time
Bus Free Time Between STOP and
START
STOP Setup Time
VIL
VIH
Vhys
VOL
Ii
fSCL
tHD;STA
tSU;STA
tLOW
tHIGH
tHD;DAT
tSU;DAT
tr
tf
tBUF
tSU;STO
Test Condition
0.1Vdd<Vin<0.9Vdd
From VIL to VIH
From VIH to VIL
Min.
-0.5
1.4
0.2
-10
0
0.6
0.6
1.3
0.6
0
0.1
1.3
0.6
Typ.
Max.
0.6
0.4
10
400
0.9
0.3
0.3
Unit
V
V
V
µA
kHz
µS
µS
µS
µS
µS
µS
µS
µS
µS
µS
SDA
tf
ttLOW
r tSU;DAT
tf
tHD;STA
SCL
tHD;STA
S
tHD;DAT
tHIGH
tSU;STA Sr
Timing Definition
tSP tr tBUF
tSU;STO
P
S
MEMSIC MXC6232xE/F Rev.A
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MXC62321E (MEMSIC)
Dual Axis Accelerometer

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ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS*
Supply Voltage (VDD) ………………...-0.5 V to +7.0V
Storage Temperature ……….…………-65°C to +150°C
Acceleration ……………………………………..50,000 g
*Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent
damage to the device. This is a stress rating only; the functional operation of the device
at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this
specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for
extended periods may affect device reliability.
Pin Description: LCC-8 Package
Pin Name Description
1 NC
Do Not Connect
2 COM Connected to Ground
3 GND Connected to Ground
4 TEST Do Not Connect
5 VDD2 Power Supply for I2C bus
6 SCL Serial Clock Line for I2C bus
7 SDA Serial Data Line for I2C bus
8 VDD 2.7 V to 3.6 V
I/O
NC
I
I
NC
I
I
I/O
I
Ordering Guide
MXC6232xEP
Package type:
Code
P
B
Type
LCC8
RoHS compliant
LCC8, Pb-free
RoHS compliant
Performance Grade:
Code
Temp
E -40~105°C
F -40~105°C
Resolution
12bits
10bits
Note: The MEMSIC logo’s arrow indicates the -X sensing
direction of the device. The +Y sensing direction is rotated 90°
away from the +X direction following the right-hand rule. Small
circle indicates pin one (1).
Address code: 0~7
Number Address
0 20H
1 22H
2 24H
3 26H
4 28H
5 2AH
6 2CH
7 2EH
All parts are shipped in tape and reel packaging.
Caution: ESD (electrostatic discharge) sensitive device.
MEMSIC MXC6232xE/F Rev.A
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MXC62321E (MEMSIC)
Dual Axis Accelerometer

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THEORY OF OPERATION
The MEMSIC device is a complete dual-axis acceleration
measurement system fabricated on a monolithic CMOS IC
process. The device operation is based on heat transfer by
natural convection and operates like other accelerometers
except that the proof mass in the MEMSIC sensor is a gas.
A single heat source, centered in the silicon chip is
suspended across a cavity. Equally spaced
aluminum/polysilicon thermopiles (groups of
thermocouples) are located equidistantly on all four sides
of the heat source (dual axis). Under zero acceleration, a
temperature gradient is symmetrical about the heat source,
so that the temperature is the same at all four thermopiles,
causing them to output the same voltage.
Acceleration in any direction will disturb the temperature
profile, due to free convection heat transfer, causing it to be
asymmetrical. The temperature, and hence voltage output
of the four thermopiles will then be different. The
differential voltage at the thermopile outputs is directly
proportional to the acceleration. There are two identical
acceleration signal paths on the accelerometer, one to
measure acceleration in the x-axis and one to measure
acceleration in the y-axis. Please visit the MEMSIC
website at www.memsic.com for a picture/graphic
description of the free convection heat transfer principle.
MXC6232xE/F PIN DESCRIPTIONS
VDD – This is the supply input for the circuits and the
sensor heater in the accelerometer. The DC voltage should
be between 2.7 and 3.6 volts. Refer to the section on PCB
layout and fabrication suggestions for guidance on external
parts and connections recommended.
GND– This is the ground pin for the accelerometer.
COM– This pin should be connected to ground.
TEST– Do Not Connect, factory use only.
VDD2– This pin is the I2C input digital power supply, the
voltage on this pin determines the I2C bus logic voltage,
and is 1.8V compatible. Note: The voltage on this pin
should never go higher than the voltage on VDD, if VDD2
has a lower power supply voltage than VDD, power should
be applied to VDD first.
SDA– This pin is the I2C serial data line, and operates in
FAST (400 KHz.) mode.
SCL– This pin is the I2C serial clock line, and operates in
FAST (400 KHz.) mode.
COMPENSATION FOR THE CHANGE IN
SENSITIVITY OVER TEMPERATURE
All thermal accelerometers display the same sensitivity
change with temperature. The sensitivity change depends
on variations in heat transfer that are governed by the laws
of physics. The sensitivity change is governed by the
following equation (and shown in following figure in °C):
Si x Ti3.50 = Sf x Tf3.50
where Si is the sensitivity at any initial temperature Ti, and
Sf is the sensitivity at any other final temperature Tf with
the temperature values in °K.
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
-40
-20
0 20 40 60
Temperature (C)
80 100
Thermal Accelerometer Sensitivity
In gaming applications where the game or controller is
typically used in a constant temperature environment,
sensitivity might not need to be compensated in hardware
or software. Any compensation for this effect could be
done instinctively by the game player.
For applications where sensitivity changes of a few percent
are acceptable, the above equation can be approximated
with a linear function. Using a linear approximation, an
external circuit that provides a gain adjustment of –
1.1%/°C would keep the sensitivity within 10% of its room
temperature value over a 0°C to +50°C range.
For applications that demand high performance, a low cost
micro-controller can be used to implement the above
equation. A reference design using a Microchip MCU (p/n
16F873/04-SO) and MEMSIC developed firmware is
available by contacting the factory. With this reference
design, the sensitivity variation over the full temperature
range (-40°C to +105°C) can be kept below 3%. Please
visit the MEMSIC web site at www.memsic.com for
reference design information on circuits and programs
including look up tables for easily incorporating sensitivity
compensation.
MEMSIC MXC6232xE/F Rev.A
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MXC62321E (MEMSIC)
Dual Axis Accelerometer

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DISCUSSION OF TILT APPLICATIONS AND
RESOLUTION
Tilt Applications: One of the most popular applications
of the MEMSIC accelerometer product line is in
tilt/inclination measurement. An accelerometer uses the
force of gravity as an input to determine the inclination
angle of an object.
A MEMSIC accelerometer is most sensitive to changes in
position, or tilt, when the accelerometer’s sensitive axis is
perpendicular to the force of gravity, or parallel to the
Earth’s surface. Similarly, when the accelerometer’s axis
is parallel to the force of gravity (perpendicular to the
Earth’s surface), it is least sensitive to changes in tilt.
Following table and figure help illustrate the output
changes in the X- and Y-axes as the unit is tilted from
+90° to 0°. Notice that when one axis has a small change
in output per degree of tilt (in mg), the second axis has a
large change in output per degree of tilt. The
complementary nature of these two signals permits low
cost accurate tilt sensing to be achieved with the MEMSIC
device (reference application note AN-00MX-007).
RESOLUTION
The accelerometer resolution is limited by noise. The
output noise will vary with the measurement bandwidth.
With the reduction of the bandwidth, by applying an
external low pass filter, the output noise drops. Reduction
of bandwidth will improve the signal to noise ratio and the
resolution. The output noise scales directly with the square
root of the measurement bandwidth. The maximum
amplitude of the noise, its peak- to- peak value,
approximately defines the worst case resolution of the
measurement. With a simple RC low pass filter, the rms
noise is calculated as follows:
Noise (mg rms) = Noise(mg/ Hz ) * (Bandwidth(Hz) *1.6)
The peak-to-peak noise is approximately equal to 6.6 times
the rms value (for an average uncertainty of 0.1%).
HARDWARE DESIGN CONSIDERATION
1. One capacitor is recommended for best rejection of
power supply noise (reference figure below). The
capacitor should be located as close as possible to the
device supply pin (VDD). The capacitor lead length
should be as short as possible, and a surface mount
capacitor is preferred. For typical applications, the
capacitor can be ceramic 0.1 µF.
Accelerometer Position Relative to Gravity
X-Axis
Orientatio
n
To Earth’s
Surface
(deg.)
90
85
80
70
60
45
30
20
10
5
0
X-Axis
Y-Axis
X
Output
(g)
Change
per deg.
of tilt
(mg)
Y
Output
(g)
Change
per deg.
of tilt
(mg)
1.000
0.15 0.000
0.996
1.37 0.087
0.985
2.88 0.174
0.940
5.86 0.342
0.866
8.59 0.500
0.707
12.23
0.707
0.500
15.04
0.866
0.342
16.35
0.940
0.174
17.16
0.985
0.087
17.37
0.996
0.000
17.45
1.000
Changes in Tilt for X- and Y-Axes
17.45
17.37
17.16
16.35
15.04
12.23
8.59
5.86
2.88
1.37
0.15
Power supply noise rejection
2. Robust low inductance ground wiring should be used.
3. Care should be taken to ensure there is “thermal
symmetry” on the PCB immediately surrounding the
MEMSIC device and that there is no significant heat
source nearby. Based on the experiment, with a
120degC heating source at 11mm away of MEMSIC
device, the offset change will be within 5mg.
4. A metal ground plane should be added directly
beneath the MEMSIC device. The size of the plane
should be similar to the MEMSIC device’s footprint
and be as thick as possible.
5. Vias can be added symmetrically around the ground
plane. These vias will increase the thermal isolation
of the device from the rest of the PCB and improve
performance.
MEMSIC MXC6232xE/F Rev.A
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Dual Axis Accelerometer

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SOFTWARE DESIGN CONSIDERATION
A register or flag is required between I2C MCU (the master
device) and any system level CPU/MCU (if there exists any
system level controller (such as a PC based system). The
potential issue will be that system level controller may read
in MSB and LSB of the same axis from different events of
on-chip A/D conversions, since I2C data length is 8 bits
while the sensor has data length of 12 bits.
I2C INTERFACE DESCRIPTION
A slave mode I2C circuit has been implemented into the
Memsic thermal accelerometer as a standard interface for
customer applications. The A/D converter and MCU
functionality have been added to the Memsic sensor,
thereby increasing ease-of-use, and lowering power
consumption, footprint and total solution cost.
The I2C (or Inter IC bus) is an industry standard bi-
directional two-wire interface bus. A master I2C device can
operate READ/WRITE controls to an unlimited number of
devices on the bus by proper addressing. The Memsic
accelerometer operates only in a slave mode, i.e. only
responding to calls by a master device
I2C BUS CHARACTERISTICS
VDD
Rp
SDA (Serial Data Line)
SCL (Serial Clock Line)
Rp
DEVICE 1
DEVICE 2
I2C bus
The two wires in I2C bus are called SDA (serial data line)
and SCL (serial clock line). In order for a data transfer to
start, the bus has to be free, which is defined by both wires
in a HIGH output state. Due to the open-drain/pull-up
resistor structure and wire-AND operation, any device on
the bus can pull lines low and overwrite a HIGH signal.
The data on the SDA line has to be stable during the HIGH
period of the SCL line. In other words, valid data can only
change when the SCL line is LOW.
I2C BUS DATA TRANSFER
A data transfer is started with a “START” condition and
ended with a “STOP” condition. A “START” condition is
defined by a HIGH to LOW transition on the SDA line
while SCL line is HIGH. A “STOP” condition is defined by
a LOW to HIGH transition on the SDA line while SCL line
is HIGH. All data transfer in I2C system is 8-bits long.
Each byte has to be followed by an acknowledge bit. Each
data transfer involves a total of 9 clock cycles. Data is
transferred starting with the most significant bit (MSB).
After a “START” condition, master device calls a specific
slave device, in our case, the Memsic accelerometer with a
7-bit device address. To avoid potential address conflict,
either by ICs from other manufacturers or by other Memsic
accelerometers on the same bus, a total of 8 different
addresses can be programmed into a Memsic device at the
factory.
Following the 7-bit address, the 8th bit determines the
direction of data transfer: [1] for READ and [0] for
WRITE. After being addressed, the available Memsic
device being called will respond by an “Acknowledge”
signal, which is pulling SDA line LOW.
In order to read an acceleration signal, the master device
should operate a WRITE action with a code of [xxxxxxx0]
into the Memsic device 8-bit internal register.
Bit Name
Function
0 PD (Power Down)
Power down [1]/on [0]
1 ST (Self-test)
Self-test on [1]/off [0]
2 BGTST (bandgap test) Bandgap test [1]/normal[0]
3 TOEN (temperature Temp Out EN [1]/disable[0]
out enable)
The ST bit serves as a self-test function to verify the
Memsic accelerometer is operating properly. BGTST is
used to calibrate the temperature output signal’s initial
offset. By flipping the BGTST bit and taking the average of
two readings, the temperature output initial offset will be
calibrated to within datasheet specifications.
After writing code of [xxxxxxx0] into the control register,
if a “READ” signal is received, during next 9 clock cycles,
the Memsic device being called will transfer 8-bits of data
to the I2C bus. If an “Acknowledge” by master device is
received, the Memsic device will continue to transfer the
next byte. The same procedure repeats until 5 bytes of data
are transferred to master device. Those 5 bytes of data are
defined as following (“T” is temperature output):
1. Internal register
2. MSB X/T axis
3. LSB X/T axis
4. MSB Y axis
5. LSB Y axis
MEMSIC MXC6232xE/F Rev.A
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Dual Axis Accelerometer

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Even though each axis consists of two bytes, which are 16-
bits of data, the actual accelerometer resolution is limited
to either 12 bits or 10 bits, which depends on an internal
output register refresh rate. Unused MSB’s will be simply
filled by “0”s.
Note that temperature output shares the same registers with
X channel output. Customer can select which signal needs
to be read out by using TOEN bit.
Resolution
Refreshing rate
Zero-G Offset
10 bits
400Hz
512
12 bits
100Hz
2048
Note: 20mS (MXC6232xE) and 5mS (MXC6232xF)
typical waiting time is necessary between each data
acquisition.
The master can stop slave data transfer after any of the five
bytes by not sending an acknowledge command and
followed by a “STOP” condition.
POWER DOWN MODE
The Memsic accelerometer can enter a power down mode
by the master device writing a code of [xxxxxxx1] into the
accelerometer’s internal register. A wake up operation is
performed when the master writes into the same register a
code of [xxxxxxx0]. Note that the MXC6232xE/F needs
about 75mS (typical) for power up time.
EXAMPLE OF DATA COMMUNICATION
First cycle: START followed by a calling to slave address
[0010xxx] to WRITE (8th SCL, SDA keep low). [xxx] Is
determined by factory programming, a total of 8 different
addresses are available.
Second cycle: After an acknowledge signal is received by
the master device (Memsic device pulls SDA line low
during 9th SCL pulse), master device sends “[00000000]”
as the target address to be written into. Memsic device
should acknowledge at the end (9th SCL pulse). Note: since
Memsic device has only one internal register that can be
written into, user should always indicate “[00000000]” as
the write address.
Third cycle: Master device writes to internal Memsic
device memory code “[xxxxxxx0]” as a wake-up call. The
Memsic device should send acknowledge signal. A STOP
command indicates the end of write operation. A 75msS
(typical) wait period should be given to Memsic device to
return from a power-down mode. The delay value depends
on the type of Memsic device. Generally speaking, low
power products tend to have longer startup time.
Fourth cycle: Master device sends a START command
followed by calling Memsic device address with a WRITE
(8th SCL, SDA keep low). An “acknowledge” should be
sent by Memsic device at the end.
Fifth cycle: Master device writes to Memsic device a
“[00000000]” as the starting address for which internal
memory is to be read. Since “[00000000]” is the address
of internal control register, reading from this address can
serve as a verification of operation and to confirm the write
command has been successful. Note: the starting address in
principle can be any of the 5 addresses. For example, user
can start read from address [0000001], which is X channel
MSB.
Sixth cycle: Master device calls Memsic device address
with a READ (8th SCL cycle SDA line high). Memsic
device should acknowledge at the end.
Seventh cycle: Master device cycles SCL line, first
addressed memory data appears on SDA line. If in step 7,
“[00000000]” was sent, internal control register data
should appear (in the following steps, this case is
assumed). Master device should send acknowledge at the
end.
Eighth cycle: Master device continues cycle SCL line, next
byte of internal memory should appear on SDA line (MSB
of X channel). The internal memory address pointer
automatically moves to the next byte. Master
acknowledges.
Ninth cycle: LSB of X channel. In the case that TOEN bit
of internal register was set to “1”, the MSB and LSB of
TOUT (temperature) should appear in last two steps.
Tenth cycle: MSB of Y channel.
Eleventh cycle: LSB of Y channel.
Master ends communications by sending NO acknowledge
and followed by a STOP command. Note: if mater device
continues to cycle SCL line, the memory pointer will go to
sixth and seventh positions, which always have
“[00000000]”. After seventh position, pointer will go to
zero again.
Optional: Master powers down Memsic device by writing
into internal control register. (See step 1 through 4 for
WRITE operation)
MEMSIC MXC6232xE/F Rev.A
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Dual Axis Accelerometer

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LCC-8 PACKAGE DRAWING
Hermetically Sealed Package Outline
MEMSIC MXC6232xE/F Rev.A
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MXC62321E.pdf
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