architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than con-
ventional CISC microcontrollers.
The ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 provides the following features: 8K/16K/32K Bytes of In-System
Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities, 512/512/1024 Bytes EEPROM,
512/512/1024 SRAM, 22 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, two
flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes and PWM, one USART, a programmable Watch-
dog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, debugWIRE interface, also used for
accessing the On-chip Debug system and programming and five software selectable power sav-
ing modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port,
and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents
but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or Hardware
Reset. In Standby mode, the Crystal/Resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device
is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low power consumption. In Extended
Standby mode, the main Oscillator continues to run.
The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology. The on-
chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial
interface, by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer, or by an on-chip Boot program
running on the AVR core. The boot program can use any interface to download the application
program in the application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash section will continue to run
while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write operation. By
combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip,
the Atmel ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible
and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 are supported with a full suite of program and system develop-
ment tools including: C compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators, in-circuit
emulators, and evaluation kits.
2.2 Pin Descriptions
Digital supply voltage.
AVCC is the supply voltage pin (input) for all analog features (Analog Comparator, PLL). It
should be externally connected to VCC through a low-pass filter.
Port B (PB7..PB0)
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 as
listed on page 74.